domingo, 4 de agosto de 2013




"May 1, 2009

Peter’s Mysterious Project

Fringe - 118 Midnight | Posted by Scully

Only two episodes left, and I feel I must add a new mystery that I’d like solved by the end of the season.  What the heck is that thing Peter is building and why is he building it?  We first see the machine in “Unleashed”, as Peter talks to Rachel on the phone, so he’s been working on it for a while.

First of all…what is it?
The truth is, I have no idea what this thing is.  I’m not sure that I even have a good theory about what it could be.  But I do have a question…how does Walter not recognize what he is building?  It seems to me that he has dabbled in just about everything.  That combined with a 196 IQ, you would think that he would at least have a theory of what it is.
builds similar to walter…pic of head thing from ghost network.
Second of all…why is he building it or for whom?
One theory might be that he is building it for Nina.  In Episode 6 – “The Cure”, Nina and Peter have the following conversation…
NINA: “…Now I have all kinds of information, Peter, and some of it does me no good. Well, take the Aymara people, for instance, of Central Peru. I know that the soil beneath their land houses a naturally occurring metal alloy that is potentially hyper-conductive. I also know that you have managed to successfully conduct business with these and other tribal concerns, in parts of the world traditionally resistant to development.
PETER: “I’m sorry, Ms. Sharp. I think I must’ve missed your question.
NINA: “My question is, are you willing to make a bargain? I’d give you the exact location you want, and in exchange, I get to come to you someday, and you return the favor. No questions asked. So… Do we have a deal?

Hyper-conductive?  Interesting.  I did a little research on elements and hyper-conductivity…here’s what I found.  The following are a few excerpts from a presentation by Bashar on the of the philosophical implications of monatomic elements. It’s an interesting read, with a lot of correlations to the show.  I just pulled out a couple of my favorite lines…
When we ingest monatomics (elements which are chemically isolated) we become hyper-conductive.  You can utilize that energy by collapsing the field within your body with your intentional focus and create superconductive effects. Yes, you can direct the energy inward superconductively or outward superconductively. But generally in the natural state, in the relaxed state it is a hyper-conductive state because you are connecting to a multidimensional holographic structure simultaneously.
Reality is changing every day. As many of you now know there are many different kinds of discoveries, many different kinds of realizations and ideas that are opening up new fields of awareness, new understandings of your consciousness and therefore your reality, your physical material reality, is going to become a lot more slippery as you say.
Space and time are losing their grip upon you because you are the creators of space and time. You are the creators of the physical reality in which you think you exist. And as you change your idea of yourself, as you expand beyond the notion that you are merely physical entities and explore other realms of consciousness and other levels of consciousness within you, so too will your physiological reality become that expanded, that nebulous … that fluid, that transmutational and transitional.
And of course it would be no surprise that at this time of exploring your consciousness in a transmutational way that you would begin to see reflections in your society of transmutational signs. Everything you do, everything you create, every endeavor scientific, economic, social or otherwise that you go into is always going to reflect where you are at in your understanding and relationship to your own consciousness.
So when you find that you have now discovered the concept of superconductivity, as you say, it is because your very being, your very body are becoming more superconductive. Which means you are becoming more aligned, more synchronized in that context and thus you are capable, once you have made that kind of change within yourself, of reflecting those changes in the discoveries that you make in your outer psychological reflective reality.
What is the difference between being superconductive and hyper-conductive?
Superconductive is the effect in what you might perceive as one frequency, one direction of an energy so to speak. Hyper-conductive is the actual, natural state of the simultaneous existence of many different fields overlapping . What you actually call the superconductive field is actually a hyper-conductive field. It is not really superconductivity until you collapse the field and get the unidirectional effect of the voltage or amperage out of it. So superconductivity is the effect in one direction of the application of the energy in your physical domain. Hyper-conductivity is the field that has no particular direction to it because it is composed of all directions.
So, is it possible that Nina has called in her favor?  Did Nina ask Peter to acquire some of the metal from his connections in Peru?  Is Peter’s machine designed to turn a naturally occurring metal into a monatomic element?  The monitor could be to display the electrical conductivity.
My problem with this theory is this.  WHY?  What could Nina possibly want with this element?  And more importantly, why ask Peter to build this machine.  Wouldn’t that be right up William Bell’s alley?  Is she doing this behind Bell’s back.  Possible rejuvenation of cells, to fix her arm?
If you look at this promo pic from the season finale, doesn’t it make you wonder if Peter’s machine worked, Nina ingested the monotomic element, and got herself in a world of trouble?  It’s one possible theory."


"Fringe Theory – “We Come In Peace”

by ROCO on FEBRUARY 17, 2009

How apt that the conflict should not centre around the stereo-typical little green menwith four fingers and toes, but with beings much likes ourselves, who’s realities have taken different paths based on the law of averages – the brightness of their stars, and the force of their gravity, and so on. This multiversal conflict not only takes us through the looking glass, but it gives us a chance to reflect on similar conflicts within our own reality – surely a metaphor for what is to come.
Our history is littered with conquests and and wars over territory, belief systems and ossessions. So much so that you can imagine that the only thing to bring us together would be a war against beings from an ‘unseen’ universe. But what is this multiverse battle over – God, gold or glory? Do the beings from these other worlds seek to purge us, like the mythological Zeus, or do they seek harmonic convergence? Are we at fault for the advancement of our science..or did we steal it from them in the first place (I’m looking at youMassive Dynamic!)?
Usually, such ‘earthly’ conflicts result in one side extinguishing the other – or at least, having rule over the other. It should perhaps be noted that the Conquistadorsvictory over the Aztec and Inca Empires, was partly due to disease, which spread faster than any army. The Aztec’s and Inca’s weren’t used to European diseases and so they succumbed to the viral of the opposition very quickly – interesting considering the recent trio of viral-centric Fringe episodes.
Many ancient tribes and groups have been wiped from our earth, several now hang in the balance. Essentially, this is the  prophecy that the ZFT manuscript warns of  — an “us or them” rally cry.
The thing is, how much trust can we place in the ZFT manifesto? Is it merely a warning over potential consequences of continued technological development and the convergence of worlds, or is it ‘a known truth’..a known, and therefore, observed, outcome?
If you browse some of the excerpts from the manifesto it reads (in places) as if what it is describing has already happened — as of these are words not from the past or the present..but the future. Not only that, but Mitchell Loeb‘s message to Olivia seems to tally with that notion:
“There’s nothing you can do..what is written, will come to pass”

Is this evidence that the ZFT “Bible” (or rather, the messages it delivers) is from the future? After all, we do know that Walter attempted to use the “Diz-Re” to reach back in time. Maybe he, or someone else (the author of ZFT?), was able to travel to the future..a future where the pattern had become a full-blown inter-dimensional war? A future where reality really did byte?
And then I remembered something, something which seemed relatively unimportant at the time. In 1.06, “The Cure”, Peter made a deal with Nina Sharp regarding his dealings with the ancient Aymara people of Central Peru:
Nina: You know, you still look just the same as you did when you were a child. Oh, I doubt you’ll remember, but you and I spent a good deal of time together. Some of it right here. Your father and I were quite close when we were both much younger. Now I have all kinds of information, Peter, and some of it does me no good. Well, take the Aymara people, for instance, of Central Peru. I know that the soil beneath their land houses a naturally occurring metal alloy that is potentially hyper-conductive. I also know that you have managed to successfully conduct business with these and other tribal concerns, in parts of the world traditionally resistant to development.
Peter: I’m sorry, Ms. Sharp. I think I must’ve missed your question.
Nina: My question is, are you willing to make a bargain? I’d give you the exact location you want, and in exchange, I get to come to you someday, and you return the favor. No questions asked. So… Do we have a deal?
Not only do we have Nina showing a keen interest in one of the worlds ancient peoples – themselves involved in a convergence of civilisations – but the Aymara’s have a distinct way of communicating the past and the future:
Tell an old Aymara speaker to “face the past!” and you just might get a blank stare in return – because he or she already does.
New analysis of the language and gesture of South America’s indigenous Aymara people indicates a reverse concept of time.
Contrary to what had been thought a cognitive universal among humans – a spatial metaphor for chronology, based partly on our bodies’ orientation and locomotion, that places the future ahead of oneself and the past behind – the Amerindian group locates this imaginary abstraction the other way around: with the past ahead and the future behind.
The language of the Aymara, who live in the Andes highlands of Bolivia, Peru and Chile, has been noticed by Westerners since the earliest days of the Spanish conquest. A Jesuit wrote in the early 1600s that Aymara was particularly useful for abstract ideas, and in the 19th century it was dubbed the “language of Adam.” More recently, Umberto Eco has praised its capacity for neologisms, and there have even been contemporary attempts to harness the so-called “Andean logic” – which adds a third option to the usual binary system of true/false or yes/no – to computer applications.
Yet, Nunez said, no one had previously detailed the Aymara’s “radically different metaphoric mapping of time” – a super-fundamental concept, which, unlike the idea of “democracy,” say, does not rely on formal schooling and isn’t an obvious product of culture. — physorg
So, taking the idea that the Aymara people communicate the future as being behindthem and the past as being ahead of them, it offers us yet more potential suggestion for certain parts of the world being conducive to time-travel (just as “Little Hill” was for Jones’ Wiessenshaft escape). Nina is interested in the Aymara soil — perhaps the soil itself conducive, or maybe there are important manuscripts buried beneath it? Who knows, I’m just speculating. At this point I’m pretty sure that the writers knew about the Aymara’s method of communicating the past and the future before they made them a part of Peter’s back-story. And if they didn’t, well, sometimes you make your own luck.
Is history going to repeat itself..only in a multiversal way — or does the ZFT manuscript only warn of a potential war of the worlds?
Personally, I have to believe that there is some way of averting an “apocalypse” — even one that has already been observed - whether it’s by time-travel, inter-dimensional travel, or good old peace talks. Maybe humanity can save itself..maybe we already have the tools at hand?
But what if neither side are, by context, the ‘agressors’? What if the conflict is an act of fate - a by product of the rate of technological advancement causing negative impacts on the nexus of the multiverse; a law of averages convergence, where neither side wants to destroy the other, but where one must otherwise both should perish?
In such an instance we must surely pose the question: Does God play dice with the..multiverse?
Food for thought."

"Peru to become significant uranium producer in five to six years
7th March 2013 
TORONTO ( – Peru has the potential to become a significant uranium supplier within five to six years, when exploration junior Macusani Yellowcake (YEL) starts production from its 900 km2 complex of properties, located on the uranium-rich Macusani Plateau, in the south-east of the country.
MD Dr Laurence Stefan is confident the trio of deposits comprising its flagship project has “blue-sky” potential to host more than 500-million pounds of uranium and could put Peru on the uranium map as a major South American producer of the radioactive metal.
Following its merger with rival explorer Southern Andes Energy in April last year, the company owns about 80% of the entire Macusani Plateau, which includes the Colibri 2 and 3, Kihitian and Corachapi deposits.
The company is stepping up exploration on these properties and would bring on line a sixth drill during April to speed up the exploration process over the next three to four months, before the Peruvian winter halts activities. Stefan said as soon as the current drill campaign had been completed, the company would complete a preliminary economic assessment (PEA), which it plans to publish soon afterwards.
Speaking to Mining Weekly Online during the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada's 2013 convention, Stefan pointed out that it is currently the only active explorer on the plateau. Together with a joint venture between Vena Resources and uranium major Cameco, the Macusani Plateau currently hosts about 110-million pounds of uranium, of which YEL owns between 60-million to 70-million pounds.
However, Southern Andes had previous undertaken extensive exploration of the plateau, and with YEL currently working on reinterpreting the historical data from the eastern part of the plateau, Stefan is confident that the potential exists that its own resources could grow well beyond 300-million pounds.
He noted that the western part of the plateau still remained underexplored owing to its inaccessibility, but, with that potential included, the Macusani Plateau could hold more than 500-million pounds of uranium.
This did not compare with Canada’s Athabasca basin in northern Saskatchewan and Alberta, which is the world’s top source of high-grade uranium, but would more likely be comparable with the resources of Namibia, Niger or Kazakhstan.
Meanwhile, following the catastrophic nuclear meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in Japan, in 2011, uranium prices have been under pressure. Stefan believed $40/lb would be the stop sign and that demand increases and little additional supply coming on stream, should ensure rising prices by 2014.
Stefan said the Macusani-complex had ores amenable to simple heap-leach extraction, placing YEL’s production costs among the lowest in the industry. A 2010 PEA estimated cash production costs of less than $22/lb.
The deposits comprise large, near-surface deposits, suitable for openpit extraction, with metallurgical recoveries of more than 90%.
YEL currently has 300 000 lb of uranium in the measured category, 11.5-million pounds in the indicated category and 27.6-million pounds in the inferred resources category for a total resource of about 40-million pounds.
As at January 31, the company had $6-million cash in the bank.
Its stock traded at 12 Canadian cents apiece on the Toronto Venture Exchange on Thursday.
Edited by: Creamer Media Reporter"


"Peru predicted to be South America's first major uranium producer

Kerry Hall | March 8, 2013
Canadian-based junior miner Macusani Yellowcake Inc. (TSX-V: YEL) says Peru could become a major source of uranium in five or six years once it starts production in the country's southeast, according to an interview with Mining Weekly Online.
The miner claims the Macusani Plateau currently hosts about 110 million pounds of ore and potentially has as much as 500 million pounds within it.
Its flagship project has three main deposits — the Colibri 2 and 3, Kihitian plus the Corachapi — that are big, high quality, near the surface and suitable for open pit mining.
The company is actively exploring the rest of the plateau.
It also said it has $6 million cash on hand.
Peru would be the first South American country to produce uranium."

"Bayóvar phosphates would have the largest reserve of uranium in Peru

Lima, Apr. 28 (ANDINA). Bayóvar phosphates, located in Piura, would have the largest uranium reserve in Peru, since total potential reserves are estimated at 14,000 metric tons, said the president of the Institute for Energy and Development Research (IEDES), Rolando Paucar.
"According to the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN), 63 percent of Peru's soil could have uranium, and the largest reserve would be in Bayóvar phosphates", he told to Andina news agency.
He said that despite being aware of this huge uranium potential reserves, the IPEN has not made a feasibility study yet to extract uranium from Bayóvar phosphates.

"Since 1954, geologists have known that any phosphate area contains uranium, but they have not done any work in this regard, yet. In addition, nowadays high technology allows the extraction of uranium from phosphates", he said.

The concession on the phosphates reserves at Bayovar was adjudicated to Brazilian Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) in March 2005.

The company is about to present the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) which will allow it to start the process of exploitation not only of the phosphates, but also of the uranium that exists on these reserves.

Paucar also said that there are nine mining companies which are exploring the existence of uranium deposits in the regions of Puno, Arequipa and Junin.
"Due to the continuous increase in oil prices and the shortage of other fossil fuels in recent years, there is a growing interest in the exploitation of uranium as an alternative for power generation, particularly electricity generation".
These companies are: Peruvian Minera Milpo, Canadian Vena Resources, Cardero Resources, Solex Resources, Frontier Pacific Mining, Wealth Minerals and Strathmore Minerals, the Australian Range Resources - Contact Uraniun, and Alara Uranium.

Date: 28/04/2008"


Cardero Acquires 150 km2 Uranium Prospect in Peru.

Article from: Internet Wire | February 22, 2007
Cardero Resource Corp. (“Cardero” or the “Company”) – (TSX: CDU, AMEX: CDY, Frankfurt: CR5) is pleased to announce that it has acquired, by staking, a 100% interest in a 150 km2 uranium anomaly located 220 kilometres northeast of Lima near the city of San Ramon, Peru. 
The area is prospective for a variety of uranium mineralization styles, including polymetallic uranium veins and intrusion and sedimentary hosted uranium. The Company is presently seeking a joint venture partner to rapidly advance this large area as well as other Peruvian uranium opportunities. 
The results from a stream sediment survey, which was designed to test an area of approximately 80 by 80 kilometres adjacent to the San Ramon granite batholith, contain anomalous uranium and thorium concentrations over an area of 150 km2 on the western flanks of the batholith (Figure 1).
Within this large geochemically anomalous area two sub-zones occur, the North anomaly, which covers approximately 103.4 square kilometres and has a maximum value of 57.5 ppm uranium and the Southern anomaly, which covers approximately 11.3 square kilometres and has a maximum value of 81.3 ppm uranium (Table 1 and Figure 1). 
Both areas contain elevated thorium pathfinder support (thorium formed by the decay of uranium over time is considered geochemically more stable in this environment). Sizeable zinc, lead, silver, gold and copper anomalies also occur in the area. There has been limited previous exploration in the area targeting high grade zinc mineralization, but none targeting uranium mineralization.

Regional scale government mapping indicates that the San Ramon batholith is comprised of a multiphase 
intrusion of monzogranite, syenogranite and quartz monzogranite. Carbonate and sedimentary rocks occur to the north, and a thrust sheet has introduced older basement rocks to the west of the intrusion.

The Company anticipates that future work will consist of prospecting up-drainage from anomalous sample sites with scintillometers and a concurrent lithogeochemical survey that will characterize the granite host by assessing its fertility; delineate anomalous outcrop and assess the style of mineralization as well as its bulk tonnage potential. 
Cardero acquired the proprietary stream sediment data that led to the acquisition of the Amable Maria prospect from Consultoria Minera Anglo Perunana, S.A., a private Peruvian consulting firm, and has agreed to issue 20,000 common shares to it as consideration for the data. 
“Although Uranium exploration is outside our traditional focus, as one of the largest known South American uranium anomalies, this project is too large and prospective to ignore” stated Henk Van Alphen, president and CEO. “Generated as a result of our long term commitment to Peruvian exploration, the Amable Maria project could provide significant value to our shareholders in partnership with a company possessing a uranium discovery focus and the necessary expertise.” 


Table 1. Total World Thorium Resources


The Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute, with the assistance of other countries, has been exploring Peru's uranium resources. The government has the right to explore and develop uranium fields located on indigenous lands."


"Australia destroyed Aboriginals’ reputation, to get land for uranium mining

Government had made it clear that it wished to re-engage itself more directly in the control of community land through leasing options as well as to open up Aboriginal land for development and mining purposes.
The plan was to empty the homelands, and this has not changed. However, it was recognised that achieving this would be politically fraught – it would need to be accomplished in a manner that would not off-side mainstream Australia. Removing Aboriginal people from their land and taking control over their communities would need to be presented in a way that Australians would believe it to be to Aboriginal advantage, whatever the tactics.
So began the campaign to discredit the people and to publicly stigmatise Aboriginal men of the Northern Territory
And even in 2009 when the CEO of the Australian Crime Commission, John Lawler, reported that his investigation had shown there were no organised paedophile rings operating in the NT, no formal apology was ever made to the Aboriginal men and their families who were brutally shamed by the false claims."


"Corporate land grabbing from indigenous peoples

Ultimately, the most affected aren’t the [indigenous] leaders who are comfortable in their palaces –most of them for more than two decades in power. The real losers in this are ordinary people in African countries.
As the G8 meet  in Northern Ireland, the spotlight has been brought back to taxes and role of multi-nationals in developing countries. It is not just tax evasion and tax holidays that governments provide them that hurt developing economies but land grabbing has also become an every day reality in most African countries. Some companies involved are from these G8 countries.
More work on the ground needs to be done for local communities to have their rights to land well kept as governments push in favour of foreign companies


Legal fightback by Native Americans against uranium mining

The proposed legislation can be found at the website of Defenders of the Black Hills,
The cancer rates started increasing drastically a few decades after uranium mining began on their territory.
According to a report by Earthworks, “Mining not only exposes uranium to the atmosphere, where it becomes reactive, but releases other radioactive elements such as thorium and radium and toxic heavy metals including arsenic, selenium, mercury and cadmium. Exposure to these radioactive elements can cause lung cancer, skin cancer, bone cancer, leukemia, kidney damage and birth defects.”
Today, in the northern great plains states of Wyoming, Montana and the Dakotas, the memory of that uranium mining exists in the form of 2,885 abandoned open pit uranium mines. All of the abandoned mines can be found on land that is supposed to be for the absolute use of the Great Sioux Nation under the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty with the United States.
There are also 1,200 abandoned uranium mines in the Navajo Nation, where cancer rates are also significantly disproportionate. In fact, it is estimated that 60 to 80 percent of all uranium in the United States is located on tribal land, and three fourths of uranium mining worldwide is on Indigenous land.
Defenders of the Black Hills, a group whose mission is to preserve, protect, restore, and respect the area of the 1851 and 1868 Fort Laramie Treaties, is calling the health situation in their own territoryAmerica’s Chernobyl.
It’s not far from the truth. A nuclear physics professor from the University of Michigan, Dr. K. Kearfott, Ph. D., who studied the situation in northwestern South Dakota as well as the situation in Japan has said,
“The radiation levels in parts I visited with my students were higher than those in the evacuated zones around the Fukushima nuclear disaster…”
The contamination from the mines escapes into the air. It poisons grain that is fed to cattle that provide milk and beef for the rest of the nation. The abandoned uranium mines of the Cave Hills in northwestern South Dakota empty into the Grand River which flows through the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. Three villages are located on the Grand River and their residents have used the water for drinking and other domestic purposes for generations. The water runoff from the Slim Buttes abandoned uranium mines empty into the Morreau River which flows through the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation. Both of these rivers empty into the Missouri River which empties into the Mississippi.
Defending their lands, their food, air and water, defending their health and right to thrive as a people, the Defenders of the Black Hills have written legislation, The Uranium Exploration and Mining Accountability Act, calling for study and remediation. This legislation proposes to place a moratorium on any processing or approval of new licenses for uranium exploration or mining operations until all abandoned mines in the country have been cleaned up.
In the last years, uranium mining interests in the United States for use at nuclear power plants has been growing. Being sold as a safer, cleaner and renewable energy, nuclear energy is on the table for America’s desire for energy independence.
However, as it has been witnessed by the Native communities suffering from the health impacts of these mines, who have also lost access to sacred sites, hunting and fishing territory, and land to grow crops, nuclear energy is just another extractive industry with serious adverse health and environmental effects.
The proposed legislation can be found at the website of Defenders of the Black Hills, along with a letter to representative Raul Grijalva from Arizona, urging him to sponsor the legislation. The uranium mines within the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty territory were never consented to by the Native American communities who now have to suffer the effects of the poisons these mines emit."

"Ecuador: Oil and Militarized Corporate Terrorism
Written by Agneta Enström   
Wednesday, 14 November 2007 03:24
This article is part 5 in a series by Agneta Enström
(Part 1) (Part 2) (Part 3) (Part 4)

When international companies perform jobs for the oil industry in Latin America, mercenaries and armed forces are often needed for protection. The oil companies use the military systematically to suppress popular resistance. This applies particularly to criminal oil exploitation conducted without legal permits, as is often the case for Swedish construction company Skanska, in such areas as nature reserves and indigenous territories.

To maintain control over a local population fighting for its culture and environment, the oil companies often employs private security forces and a strategic militarization of the area around the oil fields. Militarization of oil regions has a number of social consequences, including violation of human rights, assassinations, abuse of women and institutionalized prostitution.
The Amazon regions of such countries as Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia in which Skanska is extracting oil are characterized by military terror against the local population. According to the international network Oilwatch, the military's role in these oil countries is clear in that it is directly controlled by the oil industry through special contracts. Protecting the oil companies against local opposition is the national army's primary assignment, and in exchange for this protection, the companies finance military operations.

In addition to protection by the armed forces, the oil companies also employ private and heavily armed security forces. According to Skanska's manager in the Ecuadorian Amazon, Milton Diaz, both the military and the company's own mercenaries are essential for being able to conduct any operations in the politically unstable area.

"In fact, we couldn't do business here around without military protection," Diaz says, in an interview with the Swedish media Yelah, which has been investigating Skanska's operations in Latin America since 2005.
Ecuador - a militarized oil republic
Ecuador is the oil state in which a special security council was established in January 2006 called GESPETRO - Grupo Especial de Seguridad Petrolera (Special Group on Oil Security), which is charged with coordinating security for the companies involved with oil extraction. Ecuador also has special security agreements regulating cooperation between the military defense forces and the oil companies operating in the country. These agreements involve such oil companies as Repsol-YPF and Petrobras, which are Skanska's customers.

The contracts, which were negotiated in secret, include stipulations that the oil companies are to supply the military with fuel, infrastructure, food, living quarters and emergency medical care in exchange for protection. Similarly, the companies are obligated under the contracts to inform the military (via the US-supported military base Selva N:19 Napo) of community projects and programs through which they "support" the civilian population. The contracts are thus a means for the state to keep the civilian population under control. The difference between a military area and the oil companies' private property is also very diffuse, as the army often uses the oil companies' bases for internment of detainees from the civilian population.

Skanska has become notorious in Ecuador for its operations in partnership with the oil company Repsol-YPF in the Yasuni National Park and on the territory of the indigenous Waorani people. On this oil field (which is called block 16) in the middle of the tropical rain forest, this controversial oil exploitation can only take place through the use of military violence to crush local resistance from the indigenous people.

Repsol-YPF has a special contract for block 16, for protection against "subversive elements," which includes the indigenous people and small farmers. According to Oilwatch and the environmental organization Acción Ecológica, this contract is not only illegal, but also constitutes a threat to the survival of the Waorani people, since the company is granted the "right" to give orders to the military regarding whatever instructions or actions it deems necessary and also places responsibility on the oil company for relations with the indigenous population.

Attorney Bolivar Beltran, from  Fundación Lianas, explains that the contract violates Chapter V of Ecuador's constitution, as well as the UN convention on the rights of indigenous and tribal people (ILO:169).

Repsol-YPF's controversial contract also places the oil company's partners, such as Skanska, under obligation to execute and fulfill the company's orders and directives. This unavoidably makes the relation between ethics and business practice, which Skanska professes to uphold, very problematic. Skanska's noble and prized Code of Conduct, in which it states that consideration is taken to the local communities in which the company operates, stands out in this context as a hollow concept intended to promote an image of social responsibility.

When the political scientist Hanna Dahlström and I met Alicia Cahuiya from the Waorani women's organization AMWAE, she related that land belonging to indigenous people in Yasuni and around block 16 is totally occupied by the companies' oil fields and the military.

"Every step we take is watched, and if we voice a protest, Repsol turns the military on us," says Cahuiya. "If we do not comply, they threaten or beat us. There have even been cases where the military have killed Waorani people and thrown the bodies in the river."

No one except the Waoranis, whose territory includes the land on which the oil field is located, may pass the military roadblocks surrounding the operations without permission from the oil company. This prevents human rights organizations and sometimes even provincial authorities from investigating the conditions under which the indigenous people are forced to live with the oil fields right in their homes. The Waorani people's constant cries for help, and attempts to report the injustices suffered from the companies and the military in recent years have been relatively fruitless, since outsiders are systematically stopped by the military controls.
Anthropologist José Proano from Acción Ecológica has worked with indigenous peoples in the oil region of the Ecuadorian Amazon for several years. He relates that human rights and environmental activists working with indigenous people are often persecuted and sometimes murdered, as was the fate of the well-know environmental activist Angel Shingre in the oil town of Coca, where Skanska has its regional base.
"In Ecuador, those who oppose the oil industry are terrorized to the extent that many are forced to flee and give up the fight," says Proano. "The oil regions in the Amazon are like corporate colonies, where the national defense forces are just another of the industry's own paramilitary bandit forces."
Repsol-YPF, however, is not the only one of Skanska's customers that employs military protection. The Brazilian oil company Petrobras, which also operates in Ecuador's Amazon region, is another company known for its dubious contracts with the national forces. In another part of the Yasuni National Park (in what is called Block 31) and area where Petrobras and Skanska had their permits revoked in 2005 due to illegal operations, Petrobras had a secret contact with the military that remains classified to this day.
Violence as the norm
According to the Oilwatch network, use of military and paramilitary forces is the oil industry's general method for controlling the local population in the Amazon. In Latin American oil republics, the security agreements between the military and the industry have created a culture of fear in which people are terrorized and killed so that industrial operations may continue without interruptions. With the military as a guarantor against the local population, there is an atmosphere of company immunity with respect to constitutional law and human rights.

For the Skanska managers, Milton Diaz and Osvaldo Contreras in Ecuador's Amazon region, it is self-evident that Skanska's operations require military protection and private security forces. In their world of gas and oil, it is completely natural to arm themselves against "uncivilized barbarians", to use Oswaldo Contreras own words, to gain access to the rain forest's underground riches.

When Hanna Dahlström and I met Skanska's managers in the Amazon's lacerated countryside and at the company's base in Coca, they explained why their operations could never be carried out without weapons.
"People here are slightly backward," says Diaz, referring to the indigenous people. "You never know when the barbarians are going to start shooting arrows from the bushes. At Skanska, we also have a strict security culture. Personally, I never go unarmed in the bush."
Milton Diaz, together with several of Skanska's more senior employees, sees no problem in business practices that demand arming themselves against the civilian society, in this case the indigenous people and small farmers. For the lawyers and human rights activists that work in the region, however, the oil industry's culture of violence is deeply unacceptable. Pablo Fajardo, the head lawyer in the case against Chevron-Texaco, believes that the oil industry is completely dependent on military intervention and confirms the reports from the local population on how opposition is countered with threats, violence and murder on a daily basis.

"A state of emergency often prevails due to the political unrest arising from oil operations," says Fajardo, explaining that Ecuador's Amazon region is considered one of the world's most dangerous places with respect to military and paramilitary violations of human rights. Like several other lawyers with whom we have spoken, Fajardo confirms that the oil companies for which Skanska works in the region are constantly associated with injustices and violence toward the local population.
Assassinations in Colombia
However, the link between Skanska and military forces in Latin America is not new. According to the Swedish reporter Dick Emanuelsson, Skanska was known for cooperating with the military as early as the late 1980s when the company built the main base for the Colombian Marine Corps in Bahia Malaga on the Pacific coast.
"I stumbled on this story completely by accident in Bogota 1988," relates Emanuelsson. "The whole business developed into a minor scandal when it became known that Skanska had received SEK 1.5 billion in export credit guaranties from Sweden's Export Credits Guarantee Board (EKN) to build a military base in a country in which there was a long-standing armed conflict."
Emanuelsson told how the former member of the Swedish Parliament, Bo Hammar, raised the issue in an interpellation debate but that the Board's chairman at that time, Harry Schein, defended the credit guarantees with the argument that they were partially related to a military base intended to combat Panamanian smugglers.
Another notorious case with Skanska in Colombia involved the company's dam construction project in Urra in the 1990s when dozens of Indians were murdered, including Kimy Pernia Domico, who was one of the Embera tribe's leaders. The bloody accounts of the dam construction received the most attention in Sweden in 1999, when two of the company's Swedish employees were kidnapped and held captive for five months by the FARC guerrilla. In a communiqué, FARC stated that the Swedes had been kidnapped "to focus the country's and the world's attention on the dam's catastrophic impact on the environment, the eradication of fauna, the destruction of traditional cultures that are forced to abandon the flooded land without any guarantees whatsoever of obtaining a new home and livelihood and the interruption of river transports that since prehistoric times have been used by the indigenous Embera-Katio people and small farmers."
Even in Bolivia and Peru, Skanska operates under similar circumstances. People are being murdered, ecosystems destroyed and indigenous cultures eradicated. In Peru, Skanska began its operations during the first period of dictatorship in the 1970s, when the company conducted expensive projects that were added to the country's national debt. Today, Skanska is involved in the gigantic gas and oil project Camisea (in partnership with the Argentinean corruption scandal company Techint) in which Skanska will build a pipeline through the country's last remaining virgin rainforest. Several indigenous peoples have already lost their culture, and many are now losing their lives as a result of the companies' inconsiderate rampaging.
Today, there is important local resistance against looting and destruction taken place all over the Amazon rainforest and on indigenous territories. Some international networks, fighting together with indigenous people, are the international Oilwatch, the Ecuadorian Accion Ecologica, and Survival International.
Agneta Enström is an editor and reporter at Yelah is a Swedish independent media group, uncovering activism and politics worldwide. She has recently worked in Ecuador, researching Skanska and oil exploration on indigenous land. Contact:

For more information:

Frente de defensa de la Amazonia (FDA) -

Survival International -  "


"Whoever Opposes Mining is Seen as a Terrorist"

Wikileaks on the US and Peru

A Wikileaks cable reveals the US Embassy in Lima, Peru, identified Indigenous activists and tracked the involvement of Bolivian President Evo Morales, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, Bolivia Ambassador Pablo Solon, prominent Quechua activist Miguel Palacin Quispe and community leaders.
Since the writing of this cable, the bonds with Native Americans and First Nations have grown stronger in the struggles for justice. Bolivian President Morales and Ambassador Solon were in the forefront of the Indigenous global climate change efforts in 2010. Palacin was in Tucson for an anti-mining conference in 2007, and more recently with Indigenous Peoples from around the world at the climate summits in both Cochabamba, Bolivia, and Cancun, Mexico, in 2010.
The US Embassy report dated March 17, 2008, focuses on Indigenous activists and their supporters who, the cable states, were organizing "anti-summit" protests against the European Union-Latin American Heads of State summit scheduled for mid-May of 2008 in Lima.
James Nealon at the US Embassy in Lima wrote the cable released Sunday, Feb. 13. "The greatest concern among our European Union mission colleagues is the threat that radicals could hijack the protests by aggressively confronting ill-prepared security forces, as occurred in Cusco in February."
The US Embassy’s espionage of the Indigenous Peoples and their supporters is obvious in the cable, which is designated "secret."
Nealon wrote, "A variety of radical Peruvian social movements and European anti-globalization NGOs have been planning protests against the May European Union-Latin America summit since at least early 2007 under the slogan Linking Alternatives 3 ("Enlazando Alternativas 3"), according to internal planning documents shared with poloffs," Nealon said.
"The documents show that organizers have held a series of workshops and meetings among dozens of social movement leaders to coordinate roles and international fundraising efforts. On the European side, principal groups include Attac — an anti-globalization organization that has led protests against several European summits — the leftist solidarity group France Amerique Latine, the Spanish environmental organization Ecologistas en Accion, the Amsterdam-based scholar-activist Transnational Institute, and many others," Nealon wrote.
Along with naming the names of support groups in Europe, the US Embassy also named other Indigenous activists and community organizers opposing mining in South America.
The US Embassy’s insult of Bolivia Ambassador Solon reveals the US bias. It refers to Solon as an "anti-free trade and globalization guru."
US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, in a separate cable, states that the Intelligence Community relies on biographical information from US diplomats. In cables to Africa and Paraguay, Clinton asked US Embassy personnel to collect address books, e-mail passwords, fingerprints, iris scans and DNA. In other words, Clinton asked US Ambassadors to engage in espionage.
"The intelligence community relies on State reporting officers for much of the biographical information collected worldwide," Clinton said in a cable on April 16, 2009. Clinton said the biological data should be sent to the INR (Bureau of Intelligence and Research) for dissemination to the Intelligence Community.
The cable released from Lima, which insults and targets world leaders and Indigenous activists, fails to describe the underlying reasons why Indigenous Peoples are fighting to protect their land, resources, families and communities.
There is no hint in the cable of the fact that multi-national corporations are responsible for widespread displacement of Indigenous Peoples, the poisoning of the land, water and air and the assassination of Indigenous community leaders opposed to mining.

Instead, Nealon focuses on Palacin in the report.
"Anti-summit leader Miguel Palacin complained to the EU mission that the GOP (Government of Peru) appears intent on criminalizing democratic protests, which makes dialogue useless; the government in turn argues that protesters want only to undermine the government and to sully its international image."
Palacin is the president of Coordinadora Andina de Organizaciones Indigenas (CAOI) the Andean Coordination of Indigenous Organizations and a Quechua Indigenous leader. Palacin was also president of the National Confederation of Communities Affected by Mining in Peru (CONACAMI) which was instrumental in uniting communities affected by mining in Peru.
In the theme that runs throughout the leaked Wikileaks diplomatic cables, the United States focuses criticism on President Morales and President Chavez, tracking their activities, naming their associates and undermining their efforts.
In a previously released cable, the US Embassy in Lima reveals its bias against Indigenous Peoples protecting their homelands, and in favor of mining.
It reveals that a core group of diplomats formed an alliance with mining companies to promote and protect mining interests globally. The diplomats were from the U.S., Canada, U.K., Australia, Switzerland and South Africa.

The US and Canadian Ambassadors met with these mining companies: Antamina, Newmont (Minera Yanacocha), Minera Quellaveco, Barrick, BHP Billiton (Tintaya mine).
The diplomats were from the US, Canada, the Swiss Charge, the new Australian Consul General, and the British Embassy Trade and Investment. "A representative from the South African Embassy, which forms part of this diplomatic mining group, was unable to attend," the cable said.
The cable states that their goal was to improve the climate for investments and security around mines.
The cable exposing the diplomatic mining group does not describe the devastation of Indigenous lands by mining. Two of those corporations targeting Indigenous lands globally — Newmont and Barrick — targeted Western Shoshone lands for gold mining in Nevada. A federal lawsuit remains before the court to halt Barrick from coring out sacred Mount Tenabo for an open pit gold mine.
In September of 2007, about six months before the Lima cable was written in March of 2008, Palacin was in Tucson, along with Native American and First Nations activists opposing mining on their lands.
Speaking out against mining, Quechua leader Palacin said Andean Peoples from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina have organized to protect Indigenous territories in this region. Palacin spoke of his work as coordinator of the Coordinadora Andina de Organizaciones Indigenas (Andean Federation of Indigenous Organizations.)
"This group is working to protect Indigenous rights," Palacin said, speaking with BRENDA NORRELL, publisher of Censored News, at the Western Mining Action Network Conference 2007, held in Tucson on Sept. 28 – 29.
Palacin said the concept of Indigenous territories does not only refer to the lands of Indigenous Peoples, but also to Indigenous’ languages, cultures, values and clothing. Indigenous territories include the right to autonomy and self-governance based on Indigenous Peoples’ own legal systems and principles.
"This is a fundamental right, a right that is being offended by the politics of globalization, the invasion of transnational corporations and the contamination that is damaging the life and culture."
Palacin said it is essential to grow in visibility and expose the mining, energy and hydroelectric corporations seizing Indigenous territories for profit.
He said Indigenous territories are under attack by governments. "The governments are campaigning against the social movement." This is particularly true in Colombia, where Indigenous Peoples are confronted by the federal government, FARC and the paramilitaries.
"In Colombia, there has been a lot of death and displacement."
However, Palacin said there is also hope. In both Bolivia and Ecuador, new Constitutional reforms propose changes that respect Indigenous Peoples rights.
Further, the Andean Federation of Indigenous Organizations is now proposing the establishment of Indigenous Diplomats, to meet with governments to explain their positions. These include opposition to Free Trade agreements and militarization. Further, concerns are arising because of new visa and passport requirements.
In support of these struggles, Indigenous Peoples plan mobilizations throughout South America on the "Day of Genocide," October 12, followed by a delegation to Europe on Oct. 13, he said.
"The Indigenous movement has power in the south. We want to be included in the transformation of our countries. Indigenous Peoples have the right to govern their countries," Palacin said.
Attorney Javier Aroca of Lima, Peru, said the government of Peru has criminalized the social movement to protect the land. "Mining is very strong. The government really supports this industry because they view it as a means of receiving a lot of revenues.
"Whoever opposes mining is seen as a terrorist and anti-patriotic," Aroca said, during an interview in Tucson at the anti-mining conference in 2007.
At issue now are the mining companies who obtain their leases from leaders without consultation of the community, including copper mines.
"The biggest concern is water," Aroca said, pointing out that water from the mountain tops flows throughout the region. Where copper mine exploration is being carried out, there are natural protected reserves in the high mountain region. "These mountain top areas are the source of water."
Aroca said the Peruvian government supported the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, including the right to free, informed and prior consent and Indigenous Peoples’ rights to their territories.
"But in practice, the Peruvian government is doing the opposite."
Read Lima diplomatic cable:
Previously released Peru mining cables:
Cable 1:
Cable 2: Posted and highlighted by London Guardian
State Department Cable from Hillary Clinton on biographical data:

BRENDA NORRELL has been a reporter in Indian country for 28 years and is publisher of Censored News"

Was Captured Shining Path Boss a Double Agent?

  • A new report sets out how, after his capture in 1999, Shining Path leader "Comrade Raul" won the confidence of the Peruvian authorities, before leading them into an ambush and escaping -- though some question whether he was in fact playing a more elaborate game.
    Jorge Quispe Palomino, alias "Comrade Raul," was captured in Huancayo in June 1999, and immediately offered to serve as an informant for the military. He helped them capture the group's top commander, Oscar Ramirez Durand, alias "Feliciano," in July that year, as Caretas magazine sets out in a report.
    This won the confidence of the authorities, and Caretas has photos of the guerrilla at a football game with police officers, playing guitar (see images above and below), and posing in army uniform. The National Intelligence Service (SIN) viewed Raul as its star informant, according to the magazine, and he was given access to the intelligence units of the police, army and SIN.
"Bibliography of Irregular Warfare
Sources Available through the Navy Department Library

Table of Contents
          The American Revolution
          War of 1812
          American Civil War
          World War I
          World War II
     Sea/Area Denial
          Mine Warfare
          Land-Based Anti-Ship Missiles
     Maritime Smuggling          Blockade Running
          Weapons Proliferation
          Piracy in the Ancient World
          Pre-20th Century Piracy
          Modern Piracy: Web Pages"


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